Hundreds of millions of people around the world are food insecure. Income, food prices, and economic inequality are major determinants of how much access people have to food, while agricultural production and market conditions affect how much food is available. Widespread food availability, rising income levels, and low food prices improve a country’s food security. Conversely, shocks to income, prices, or food supply can decrease food security, especially for the poor.
Each year, the USDA, Economic Research Service (ERS) report International Food Security Assessment, 2020-2030 (IFSA) uses these determinants to analyze food security conditions in 76 low- and middle-income countries, all of which are historic or current food aid recipients. Special to this year’s report is an analysis of the effect of income losses associated with the COVID-19 pandemic on present and future food security.